Periodontology is another branch of dental medicine which deals with diseases healing of structures supporting the tooth – paradonts. Gingivitis or periodontitis are as common as dental caries; the only difference is that the former two concern the gum disease.
Gum disease, or periodontitis, is a bacterial inflammation of the teeth-surrounding tissue that causes gums to recede from the teeth and may result in tooth loss. Periodontal therapy removes these bacterial layers by a technique called scaling or micro-access flap if the infection is deep. It also employs regenerative surgery to treat bone defects and rebuild supporting dental tissue in case of craters or pocket removal surgery if the surrounding tissue requires reshaping. Parodontitis is, however, a chronic inflammatory disease, and does require follow-ups at least biannually.
Periodontology also deals with treating bare tooth necks to prevent caries and further withdrawal of gums, as well as other dental therapies like cosmetic gum surgery, surgical lengthening of dental crowns, and pre-prosthetic surgery.